9394949438

[LATEST]$type=sticky$show=home$rm=0$va=0$count=4$va=0

p-BLOCK ELEMENTS - CARBON FAMILY

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

Element
Atomic No.
Electronic configuration
Valence shell configuration
Carbon
6
[He]  
Silicon
14
[Ne]  
Germanium
32
[Ar]  
Tin    
50
[Kr]
Lead
82
[Xe]   

METALLIC CHARACTER

C and Si are non metals, Ge is a metalloid and Sn and Pb are  metals.

APPEARANCE

C is black , Si is light-brown, Ge greyish white, Sn and Pb are silvery white.

DENSITY

Density increases with the increase in atomic number due to increase  in mass per unit volume.

MELTING POINTS AND BOILING POINTS

The melting points and boiling points decrease from carbon to lead but carbon and silicon have very high melting and boiling points due to their giant structure.

OXIDATION STATES

C
     Si
Ge
Sn
   Pb
(+2) <+ 4
 (+2 )<+ 4
+2 <+ 4
+2<+ 4
  +2> + 4
  • The compounds of Ge and  Sn in +2 oxidation state are reducing in nature. Since their higher oxidation states +4 are more stable
  • The compounds of Pb in +4 oxidation state are powerful oxidising in nature. Since +2 oxidation state of Pb is more stable
  • The compounds in +2 oxidation state are ionic in nature and in +4 oxidation state are covalent in nature (Fajan’s rule)

NEGATIVE OXIDATION STATES

Carbon forms  and in certain compounds e.g.

IONISATION ENERGY

It decreases from C to Sn . For Pb it is slightly higher than Sn.

ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES

The values decrease from C to Pb but not in a regular manner probably due to filling of d-orbitals in Ge and Sn and f-orbitals in Pb.

CATENATION

It is the tendency of an element to form long chains of identical atoms. The greater the strength of  element-element bond, the greater is the strength of catenation.
Bond
C– C
Si–Si
Ge– Ge
Sn–Sn
Bond kJ/mole
353.3
225.7
167.2
155.0

ALLOTROPY

All the elements except Pb show allotropy.
Allotropic forms of carbon - Diamond, Graphite and Fullerene
Amorphous forms of carbon - coal, charcoal etc.
Silicon (Si) - crystalline and amorphous
Tin (Sn) - grey tin, white tin and rhombic tin
Germanium - two crystalline forms

VALENCY

All elements exhibit  tetravalency. In case of  Carbon 406 kJ/ mole of energy is required  for promotion of 2s electron to 2p. Formation of two extra bonds provide this energy .

INERT- PAIR EFFECT

On descending  the group, the stability of +4 oxidation state decreases and that of +2 oxidation state increases.

ATOMIC AND IONIC RADII

Both increase from C to Pb

ATOMIC VOLUME

Atomic volume shows a regular increase from C to Pb.

FORMATION OF COMPLEXES

C  does not give any complex due to non availability of empty d orbitals in valence shell.
The valence shell of Si and other elements contain d-orbitals and can accomodate more than 8 and can therefore form complexes. e.g.,
The hybridisation in these complexes is which is octahedral.

REACTIVITY

Increases from C to Pb.

MULTIPLE BONDING

Carbon forms p - p multiple bonds with itself and with S, N and O. Other  elements show negligible tendency of this type due to their large size. Others form d - p multiple bonds.

FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS

HYDRIDES

All  form covalent hydrides .Their number and ease of formation decreases down the group.
  • Hydrides of carbon are known as Alkanes, Alkene or Alkynes.
  • Hydrides of  Si and Ge are known Silanes and Germanes but their number is limited.
  • The only hydrides of  Sn and Pb are SnH4 (Stannane) and PbH4 (Plumbane) .
  • Their thermal stability decreases down the group.
  • Their reducing character increases down the group.

HALIDES

All the elements give tetrahedral and covalent halides of the typeexcept and,  since is strong oxidising and and are strong reducing agent.SnF4 is ionic.
  • Stability - Order of thermal stability with common halogen
Order of thermal stability with common metals
  • Hydrolysis - Except  other tetrahalides are hydrolysed
Ease of hydrolysis
are not hydrolysed due to absence of vacant d-orbitals in valence shell of carbon.

DIHALIDES

Except carbon other elements form dihalides of the type  which are more ionic and have higher melting points and boiling points e.g is a solid whereas is a liquid at room temperature.
C, Si and Ge form trihalides of the type . Pb and Sn do not form trihalides of the type

OXIDES

They form two types of oxides
Mono-oxides of  the type MO
CO forms a number of coordination compounds with transition metals e.g. Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5 and Cr(CO)6   

Dioxides of the type MO2
Acidic - CO2, SiO2
Amphoteric - GeO2, SnO2 and PbO2                     
is linear, gas at ordinary temperature. Solid is known dry ice or drikold. SiO2 is solid with three dimensional network having Si bonded to four oxygen atoms tetrahedrally  and covalently.
The bond energy of  bond is  368 kJ/mol, therefore is chemically  inert and has high melting point. and all are network solids. is a powerful oxidising  agent
Carbon also gives suboxide
Lead also gives mixed oxide

ACIDS

All elements give acids of the typee.g.(carbonic acid),(silicic acid), (metastannic acid), (meta plumbic acid). Carbonic acid forms two series of salts, bicarbonates and carbonates.

SILICATES

Silicates are metal derivatives of silicic acid and can be obtained by fusing metal oxides or metal carbonates with sand e.g.

TYPE OF SILICATES
Silicates contain tetrahedral formed by hybridisation, depending upon the number of  O-atoms shared between tetrahedra and fashion, Silicates have been classified into following groups
  • Orthosilicates - They contain discrete tetrahedra, Examples are phenacite , willimite forsterite .
  • Pyrosilicates - Here two tetrahedra units are
    joined by one oxygen atom forming a large discrete . Examples are thortveitite , hemimorphite
  • Chain silicates - Here two oxygen atoms per SiO4 tetrahedra are shared giving polymeric anion chains. Discrete unit is . Examples: synthetic sodium silicate,   lithium silicate ,  natural spodumene , jadeite , enstatite and diopside .
  • Double chains - Here two simple  chains are held together by shared oxygen atoms. The discrete unit is . Example mineral tremolde
Double chains silicates is also called amphibole
  • Cyclic silicates - Here two oxygen atoms per tetrahedra are shared giving discrete unit   and . Example Beryl
  • Sheet-silicates - Here three oxygen atoms per tetrahedra are shared giving two dimensional sheet having discrete unit . Example
Talc Kaolin.
  • Framework silicates - Here all four oxygen atoms of each tetrahedra are shared.  Example are quartz, zeolites, tridymite and cristobalite.

SILICONES

The polymeric compounds containing   units, linear cyclic or cross linked are known as silicones. They are manufactured from alkyl substituted chlorosilanes
             Silicone
Silicones are chemically inert, water repellent, heat resistant, good electrical insulators. These are used as lubricants, insulators etc.

CARBIDES

Compounds of carbon with less electronegative elements e.g.  Be, B, Si etc are called carbides. These are of three types.

IONIC OR SALT LIKE
The carbides of elements of group 1, 2, 13, coinage metals, Zn,Cd. Some lanthanides give ionic or salt  like carbides. Prepared by heating oxide with carbon or hydrocarbon at high temperature (2350K)
They are further classified as
  • Acetylides contain . These liberate acetylene on hydrolysis
They have NaCl type crystal  lattice.
  • Methanides - These react with water to give methane.
  • Allylides - These react with water to give allylene.

INTERSTITIAL CARBIDES
These carbides  are formed by transition elements especially Cr, Mn and Fe group metals. These are very hard.

COVALENT CARBIDES
Carbides of B and Si, B4C and SiC are  covalent .SiC is known as  CARBORUNDUM, used as abrasive and refractory material. B4C harder than SiC and used as an abrasive.

CARBON

It is widely distributed in the free state (diamond, graphite, coal etc.) and in the combined state (oxides, carbonates hydrocarbons etc.)

ALLOTROPIC FORMS OF CARBON

The crystalline forms include
  • Diamond
It is beautiful crystalline form, hardest, and has three dimensional polymeric structure, hybridisation of C is It is covalent solid, melting point 3650°C, density and bad conductor of heat and electricity.
When  heated at 1800°C - 2000°C, it is converted to graphite.
  • Graphite
(graphite)
It is dark grey, having hexagonal plates, hybridisation of C is , good conductor of  heat and electricity due to free movement of electrons. It was also known as black lead or plumbago. It is very good lubricant.
Aqua dag - suspensions of graphite in water   
Oil dag - suspension of graphite in oil lubricants
  • Fullerene
Fullerenes are large cage like spheroidal molecules with general formula C2n
(where n≥ 30). Two important member are C60 and C70. C60 fullerene looks like a soccer ball (so called bucky ball).

AMORPHOUS FORMS OF CARBON   

  • Coal
  • Coke        
  • Charcoal or  wood charcoal
  • Bone-black or animal charcoal
  • Lamp-black
  • Carbon-black  
  • Gas carbon
  • Petroleum coke

Varieties of coal -
  • Peat 60% carbon  
  • Lignite 70%C
  • Bituminous 78%C
  • Semi bituminous 83%C
  • Anthracite 90%C
Anthracite is purest - amorphous  form, burns without smokey flame.
Coke -  Coal  Coke.
It contains C = 80-90%
Uses - Reducing  agent in Iron and steel industry for making water gas and graphite.

Wood charcoal - It is obtained by strongly heating wood without access to air. When heated with steam it becomes more activated.
Uses -To remove colouring matters and odoriferous gases.

Bone-black or animal charcoal - It is obtained by destructive distillation of bones in iron retort. By products are bone oil or pyridine.
Uses - As adsorbent. On burning it gives bone ash which  is calcium phosphate and used in the manufacture of phosphorus and phosphonic acid.

Lamp black - It is obtained by burning vegetable oils in limited supply of air.
Uses - In the manufacture of printing ink, black paint, varnish and carbon paper.

Carbon black - It is obtained by burning natural gas in limited supply of air.
Uses - Added to rubber mixture for making automobile tyres.

Gas carbon and petroleum coke - When coal is subjected to destructive distillation carbon deposited on walls is scraped and called gas carbon. Similarly petroleum coke is deposited while distilling crude petroleum.
Uses - Both are good conductors of electricity when pressed into sticks they make good electrodes, known as gas electrodes.

Sugar charcoal - It is obtained by heating sugar in absence of air. It is purest form of carbon.

CARBON DIOXIDE CO2

PREPARATION
Lab method

Manufacture
  • Fermentation
  • From fuel gases
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Colourless, 1.5 times heavier than air, can be poured downwards like .Animals die in its presence due to lack of , it is also known as black damp.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
  • Stability - Fairly stable, decomposed at 1775K.
  • Incombustible and non supporter of combustion but active metals e.g. Mg, Na, K continue burning in a jar of  the gas.
  • Acidic nature
  • Lime water
  • Reduction
  • Photosynthesis

USES
In household as fire extinguisher. Dry powder fire extinguisher  contains which is decomposed by heat.
Foamite extinguisher contains baking soda and aluminium sulphate and is used for oil fires.
Structure .   Linear, dipole moment is zero.

CARBON MONOXIDE CO

PREPARATION
Lab method

Manufacture
(a) Air
(b)  Steam (water gas synthesis  gas or blue gas )

Other methods
Heating  with

PROPERTIES
Neutral, colourless, poisonous, burns with blue flame. Sparingly soluble in water. With haemoglobin it gives “carboxy haemoglobin” which destroys its capacity to supply oxygen to the body.
  • Burning - Non supporter of combustion. Burns in air with blue flame.
Reduces ammoniacal AgNO3
          
Reduces Fehling-solution
  • Reducing nature - Metal oxides are reduced to metals.
                    
  • Unsaturated nature - It gives addition products.
  • Formation of metal carbonyls - It acts as lewis base.

USES
In metallurgy of Ni-Monds process
Manufacture of methanol, phosgene, synthetic petrol, as reducing agent.

TEST
  • Burns with blue flame.
  • Reduces iodine pentoxide to I2.
 layer terms violet)
Carbogen - (mixture of is used for artificial respiration for victims of CO poisoning.

FUEL GASES

WATER GAS (H2 + CO)
Preparation : - 28 kcal
Uses : Burns with blue flame, calorific value 2700 kcal/m3. Industrial source of hydrogen (Bosch process). Manufacture of methyl alcohol (Patart Process) - Synthetic petrol (Fischer-Tropsch process). For making carburetted water gas.
SEMI WATER GAS
(mixture of water gas and producer gas)
Preparation :
Composition : CO = 27.0%, H 2= 10.9%
CH4 = 1.28%, CO2 = 4.50%
N2 = 56.3%
Properties and Uses : Its calorific value 160 - 180 B.T.U. per cubic foot. As fuel in steel industry and for production of power in internal combustion engine.

PRODUCER GAS
Composition : CO = 31.7%,  N2 = 65.7%,    CO2 = 2.5%
Properties and Uses : Poisonous, combustible but non supporter of combustion, has low calorific value. Mainly employed as fuel.

COAL GAS
Preparation : By destructive distillation of coal
Composition : H2 = 45-55% N2 = 2-12%
CH4 = 25-35%, CO2 = 0-3%
CO = 4-11%, O2 = 1-1.5%
Ethylene, acetylene, benzene etc = 2.5-5%
Uses : Used as illuminant, as fuel, to provide inert atmosphere in metallurgical processes.

NATURAL GAS
It is found along with petroleum below the surface of earth.
Composition : CH4 = 60-80%
Higher hydrocarbons  = 2-14%
C2H6 = 5-9%, C3H8 = 3-18%
Uses : It is used as a fuel. Its partial combustion yields carbon black (reinforcing agent for rubber)

OIL GAS
Preparation :
Uses : It is used as fuel in laboratories in Bunsen Burners.

WOOD GAS :
Preparation :
Uses : It is used as fuel

LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
Composition : n-Butane + Iso-butane
Uses : It is used as domestic fuel.
GOBAR GAS :
Preparation :
 
Uses : As domestic fuel.

British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) - It represents the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through 1ºF. One B.T.U. is equal to 252 calories.

SILICON

Silicon does not occur free in nature . In abundance it is next to .

OCCURRENCE

As oxide (Silica )in sand, quartz, flint.  As silicates
of Al, Mg , K, Fe etc. Aluminium silicate is most
widely distributed as Felspar ()and Mica , Feldspar (), Kaolinite

PREPARATION OF AMORPHOUS FORM

It is very common and may be obtained by heating powdered  quartz or finely divided silica with Mg powder.

PREPARATION OF CRYSTALLINE FORM

By reduction of  with molten Al              
By reduction of highly purified SiCl4 with hydrogen

Zone-refining
Silicon is purified by Zone-refining process because the impurities present in  it are more soluble in the liquid phase than in the solid phase.

PROPERTIES

Crystalline form possesses metallic lustre. It is very hard and scratches glass. Crystalline silicon is isomorphous with diamond.

Chemical reactions of amorphous silicon: Burns in air

USES

Silicon chips used for computing devices are doped with P,As,  Al or Ga to enhance the semiconductor properties.

COMPOUNDS OF SILICON

  • SiO2 (silica) - It exists in three crystalline forms Quartz, Tridymite  and cristobalite. Further each form has and  form. At low temperature the form is stable and at high temperature the form is stable .
  • Sand - It is crushed form of quartz produced in nature by weathering of rocks .
  • Flint - It is amorphous silica associated with quartz .
  • Kieselguhr - Siliceous rock composed of the remains of sea organisms. Used as absorbent for nitroglycerine.
  • Quartz or rock crystal - It is purest form of silica It is optically active.
  • Silicic acid
Ortho silicic acid
Metasilicic acid
  • Silicic acid sol - Colloidal solution of silicic acid
  • Silica gel - Transparent gel of bluish white colour
  • Water glass or sodium silicate - Sodium silicate containing  excess of SiO2.
  • Silica garden - Aqueous solution of sodium silicate containing  crystals of various coloured salts e.g. copper sulphate, cobalt nitrate , manganese chloride, nickel chloride etc.
  • Hydrofluorosilicic acid H2SiF6
  • Permutit - Artificially prepared sodium aluminium  silicate containing varying composition of sodium ,aluminium and silica .
    Used for softening hard water.
  • Zeolites -They have honeycomb like structure and have the general formula
They act as ion exchanger and molecular sieves. They can be  artificially prepared by heating China clay, Silica and
  • Ultramarines - Zeolite type silicates, containing ions likeand not water,  are known as ultramarines e.g.. Many of them are coloured and used as pigments and calico printing.
  • Carborundum - silicon carbide
It is nearly as hard as diamond.

GLASS

Amorphous, hard, brittle, transparent, translucent supercooled solution of various silicates and borates of K, Ca and Pb. It has no definite formula but roughly can be represented as
Raw material used in the manufacture of glass.
  • SiO2
  • Na2CO3, K2CO3 or NaNO3, KNO3
  • Alkaline earth metals e.g. CaCO3, BaCO3
  • Oxides of heavy metals
  • Cullets (pieces of glass)
  • Colouring matter

MANUFACTURE
Mixture of raw materials till CO2 escapes clear liquid. After some cooling  it is used for casting articles

Annealing - Process of slow cooling of glass is known as annealing. The glass becomes soft.

TIN (Sn)


PRINCIPAL ORES OF TIN
  • Cassiterite or Tin stone, SnO2
  • Tin Pyrites, SnS.Cu2S.FeS.

EXTRACTION

  1. Concentration - By gravity process washing with water and then magnetic separation.
  2. Roasting -To remove volatile impurities
  1. Smelting - It is carried out in reverberatory furnace with coal (powdered anthracite) and limestone.
          
Sn so obtained contains iron and other metals and called black tin .
  1. Refining by (a) Liquation (b) Poling and (c) Electrolytic

PROPERTIES

Soft silvery  white metal, ductile and malleable. It has maximum number of isotopes and three allotropic forms.
Grey 18℃ White 161℃ Rhombic
Tin cry - It  produces a peculiar cracking sound  on bending which is known as tin cry.
Tin plague - It is the conversion of white tin to grey tin at low temperature which crumbles into powder.
Tinning - Since tin is  not attacked by organic acids the  utensils are protected by thin layer of tin .A pinch of is sprinkled over hot and clean surface, when HCl liberated removes the oxide film.Tin then rubbed  over the clean surface with the help of rag dipped in powder. The utensil is immediately dipped in  water to avoid oxide formation .
Tin plating - It involves the deposition of thin protective layer of tin  over sheets of iron electrolytically.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

With acids
  
                
            Metastannic acid

COMPOUNDS OF TIN

STANNIC OXIDE (SnO2)

It occurs naturally as cassiterite.

PREPARATION

PROPERTIES
White solid, insoluble in water and amphoteric  in nature.

USES
As polishing powder, in glass and pottery manufacture.

STANNOUS OXIDE (SnO)

PREPARATION
PROPERTIES
It is black solid and amphoteric in nature.

SULPHIDES

SnS precipitated by .It is dark brown solid, soluble in yellow ammonium sulphide forming

STANNOUS CHLORIDES ()

PREPARATION
Anhydrous

PROPERTIES
  • White crystalline solid, soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
  • Hydrolysed in water
  • Strong reducing agent

BUTTER OF TIN  

used as mordant in dyeing.

PURPLE OF CASSIUS

Colloidal particles of gold absorbed by stannic acid Snis known as purple of cassius. It  is used for colouring glass and pottery.

ALLOYS OF TIN

Some important alloys of  tin are
  • Solder                 Sn 50-70% Pb 30-50%
  • White metal        Sn 82%   Sb 12% Cu 6%
  • Britannia  metal Sn 90% Sb 7% Cu 3%
  • Soluminium Sn 55%  Zn 33% Al 11% Cu 1%
  • Babbitt metal   Sn 90% Sb 7% Cu 2%
  • Pewter               Sn 80% Pb 20%
  • Dental alloy    Alloy of Sn, Ag, and Hg

LEAD

PRINCIPAL ORES
  • Galena PbS
  • Anglesite PbSO4
  • Cerussite PbCO3

EXTRACTION

From galena - Two important processes are:-
  • Air reduction process
(i) Concentration - By froth floatation process
(ii) Roasting - Roasted in air at 500°C – 600°C.
  • Carbon reduction process
Mixed sulphides (PbS & ZnS) are roasted to obtain oxides which are fed into blast furnace with coke and lime.
Molten lead tapped off from the bottom.

PURIFICATION

Electrolytic method to remove Cu, Ag, Au, Sb etc.

PROPERTIES

Bluish, grey lustrous metal which acquires dull appearance when exposed to air due to formation of basic carbonate (Pb(OH)2.PbCO)3. Poor conductor of electricity.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Plumbo Solvency - Formation of lead hydroxide with in presence of air.
Hence lead is readily corroded hard water has no action on lead which forms a protective layer of  and
Hence hard water can be conveyed through lead pipes.

USES

In lead accumulators, pigments such as red lead, chrome yellow, chrome red, (C2H5)4Pb as antiknock compound, manufacturing of sulphuric acid.

COMPOUNDS OF LEAD

LEAD MONOXIDE (PbO)

PREPARATION

PROPERTIES
Insoluble in water and amphoteric in nature.

USES
Making glass, pottery, Massicot mixed with glycerine joins glass and stone . As drier in paints and varnishes.

LEAD DIOXIDE ()

PREPARATION
By any of the methods given below

PROPERTIES
It is brown solid. Powerful oxidising in nature.
  
Amphoteric in nature

USES
Storage batteries and match industry, as oxidizing agent.

TRILEAD TETRAOXIDE, RED LEAD, MINIUM OR SINDHUR

PREPARATION

PROPERTIES
Red crystalline solid, insoluble in water.
Action of heat  
With acids
Structure    
      

USES
In glass, match and pottery and as red pigment.

BASIC LEAD CARBONATE,  WHITE LEAD [2PbCO3. Pb(OH)2]

PREPARATION
Dutch process - It is formed by exposing thin sheets of lead to vapours of acetic acid in presence of  horse dung or tan bark .
 
PROPERTIES
White crystalline solid, turns black when exposed to due to PbS formation .It is highly poisonous.

Action of heat

USES
As a white paint.

Halides of lead  [Pb(II) halide]

PREPARATION

PROPERTIES
yellow, others are white solids . are soluble in hot water.
forms complex with conc. HCl,
 
Covalent character  
     

Pb (IV) halides :

PREPARATION

PROPERTIES
It is covalent liquid and unstable.
is ionic solid.
Sugar of lead  -It  has sweet taste.
Chrome yellow or Lemon chrome
Basic lead Chromate or chrome red
- It is red pigment.
Lead tetra ethyl
Antiknock agent.
Lithophone is substitute of white lead.

FUSIBLE ALLOYS OF LEAD


  • Type metal Pb 82% Sb 15% Sn 3 %
  • Wood metal Bi 50%  Pb 25% Sn 12.5% Cd 12.5%   
  • Lipowitz Bi 50%  Pb 27% Sn 13% Cd 10%
  • Rose metal Bi 50%  Pb 28% Sn 22%
  • Newton’s metal Bi 50%  Pb 31% Sn 19 %

Want to know more

Want to Know More
Please fill in the details below:

INNER POST ADS

Latest IITJEE Articles$type=three$c=3$author=hide$comment=hide$rm=hide$date=hide$snippet=hide

Latest NEET Articles$type=three$c=3$author=hide$comment=hide$rm=hide$date=hide$snippet=hide

Name

Alternating Current,60,Basic Maths,2,best books for iit jee,2,best coaching institute for iit,1,best coaching institute for iit jee preparation,1,best iit jee coaching delhi,1,best iit jee coaching in delhi,2,best study material for iit jee,4,Blog,62,books for jee preparation,1,books recommended by iit toppers,3,Capacitance,3,CBSE NEET,9,cbse neet 2019,3,CBSE NEET 2020,1,cbse neet nic,1,Centre of Mass,2,Chemistry,58,Class 12 Physics,15,coaching for jee advanced,1,coaching institute for iit jee,2,Collision,2,Current Electricity,4,Electromagnetic Induction,3,Electronics,1,Electrostatics,3,Energy,1,Fluid Mechanics,4,Gravitation,2,Heat,4,iit admission,1,iit advanced,1,iit coaching centre,3,iit coaching centre in delhi,2,iit coaching classes,2,iit coaching in delhi,1,iit coaching institute in delhi,1,iit entrance exam,1,iit entrance exam syllabus,2,iit exam pattern,2,iit jee,3,iit jee 2019,3,iit jee advanced,2,iit jee books,3,iit jee coaching,2,iit jee exam,3,iit jee exam 2019,1,iit jee exam pattern,3,iit jee institute,1,iit jee main 2019,2,iit jee mains,2,iit jee mains syllabus,2,iit jee material,1,iit jee online test,3,iit jee practice test,3,iit jee preparation,6,iit jee preparation in delhi,2,iit jee preparation time,1,iit jee preparation tips by toppers,2,iit jee question paper,1,iit jee study material,3,iit jee study materials,2,iit jee syllabus,2,iit jee syllabus 2019,2,iit jee test,3,iit preparation,2,iit preparation books,5,iit preparation time table,2,iit preparation tips,2,iit syllabus,2,iit test series,3,IITJEE,100,JEE Advanced,82,jee advanced exam,1,jee advanced exam pattern,1,jee advanced paper,1,JEE Books,1,JEE Coaching Delhi,3,jee exam,3,jee exam 2019,6,JEE Exam Pattern,2,jee exam pattern 2019,1,jee exam preparation,1,JEE Main,85,jee main 2019,4,JEE Main application form,1,jee main coaching,1,JEE Main eligibility criteria,3,jee main exam,1,jee main exam 2019,3,jee main online question paper,1,jee main online test,3,jee main registration,2,jee main syllabus,2,jee mains question bank,1,jee mains test papers,3,JEE Mock Test,2,jee notes,1,jee past papers,1,JEE Preparation,2,jee preparation in delhi,1,jee preparation material,4,JEE Study Material,1,jee syllabus,6,JEE Syllabus Chemistry,1,JEE Syllabus Maths,1,JEE Syllabus Physics,1,jee test series,3,Kinematics,1,Latest article,1,Latest Articles,61,latest news about neet exam,1,Laws of Motion,2,Magnetic Effect of Current,3,Magnetism,3,Modern Physics,1,NCERT Solutions,15,neet 2019,1,neet 2019 eligibility criteria,1,neet 2019 exam date,2,neet 2019 test series,2,NEET 2020 Eligibility Criteria,1,neet application form 2019 last date,1,Neet Biology Syllabus,1,Neet Books,3,neet eligibility criteria,3,neet exam 2019,7,neet exam application,1,neet exam date,1,neet exam details,1,neet exam pattern,6,neet exam pattern 2019,2,neet examination,1,neet mock test 2019,1,Neet Notes,3,Neet Online Application Form,3,neet online test,2,neet past papers,1,neet physics syllabus,1,neet practice test,2,NEET preparation books,1,neet qualification marks,1,NEET question paper 2019,1,neet question papers,1,neet registration,1,Neet Study Material,3,neet syllabus,6,neet syllabus 2019,5,NEET Syllabus 2020,1,neet syllabus chemistry,1,neet syllabus for biology,1,neet syllabus for physics,1,neet test series,1,neet ug 2019,2,online study material for iit jee,1,Optical Instruments,1,Physics,110,physics books for iit jee,1,Power,1,Practical Physics,1,Ray Optics,1,Rotational Motion,3,SHM,3,Simple Harmonic Motion,3,study materials for iit jee,1,Study Notes,110,study notes for iit jee,1,Thermodynamics,4,Units and Dimensions,1,Vectors,2,Wave Motion,3,Wave Optics,1,Work,1,
ltr
item
Best Coaching Institute in Delhi for IIT JEE, NEET, AIIMS, PMT - Clear IIT Medical: p-Block Elements - Carbon Family | Chemistry Notes for IITJEE/NEET
p-Block Elements - Carbon Family | Chemistry Notes for IITJEE/NEET
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/Av_7ncinu-HR-Kga2NmTNkce1reOeYFSnGF3mC5R7ooIR4u-3Ra0dNrlMM29jrf4eioprDlUCN5vhQ6iOtfJeW_1tiEXVPfkYbk5K8nwi-qnkH0LM-rGojOvPsuFgW1wJxDwFa9jEhcU1GFbuw
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/Av_7ncinu-HR-Kga2NmTNkce1reOeYFSnGF3mC5R7ooIR4u-3Ra0dNrlMM29jrf4eioprDlUCN5vhQ6iOtfJeW_1tiEXVPfkYbk5K8nwi-qnkH0LM-rGojOvPsuFgW1wJxDwFa9jEhcU1GFbuw=s72-c
Best Coaching Institute in Delhi for IIT JEE, NEET, AIIMS, PMT - Clear IIT Medical
https://www.cleariitmedical.com/2019/04/chemistry-notes-p-block-elements-carbon-family.html
https://www.cleariitmedical.com/
https://www.cleariitmedical.com/
https://www.cleariitmedical.com/2019/04/chemistry-notes-p-block-elements-carbon-family.html
true
7783647550433378923
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy