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NEET Biology Syllabus

The NEET Biology Syllabus 2020 consists of topics studied by students in Class 11 and 12. Biology is a subject which involves a large number of terminologies and definitions. It is very important for NEET exam aspirants to understand the correct meaning of the definitions in this subject. This is one of the foundational subjects included in NEET Syllabus Biology. So, it is advised that students must prepare this subject pretty well. In order to prepare well NEET Biology, candidates are advised to properly revise relevant topics from Class 11 Biology Solutions and Class 12 NCERT Biology textbooks. One cannot ignore Biology subject as it carries around 50% of the total weightage in the entrance examination. The syllabus of NEET Biology is divided into two parts i.e. Botany and Zoology. Before starting preparation for NEET Biology, it is very important for candidates to understand the detailed syllabus of Biology. Keep reading further details to know the detailed syllabus of NEET Biology.

Biology CLASS 11 Syllabus
UNIT 01 – Diversity in Living World
  • What is living?
  • Biodiversity
  • Need for classification.
  • Three domains of life.
  • Taxonomy & Systematics.
  • Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy.
  • Binomial nomenclature.
  • Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
  • Five kingdom classification.
  • Salient features and classification of Monera.
  • Protista and Fungi into major groups.
  • Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groupsAlgae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category).
  • Angiospermsclassification up to class - Characteristic features and examples.
  • Salient features and classification of animals­nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT 02 – Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
  • Morphology and modifications.
  • Tissues
  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
  • Animal tissues.
  • Morphology
  • Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT 03 – Cell Structure and Function
  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life.
  • Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
  • Plant cell and animal cell.
  • Cell
  • Envelope, cell membrane, cell wall.
  • Cell organellesstructure and function.
  • Endomembrane systemendoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles,mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function).
  • Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomoleculesstructure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids.
  • Enzymestypes, properties, enzyme action.
  • B-Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT 04 – Plant Physiology
  • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients.
  • Cell to cell transportDiffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport.
  • Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis.
  • Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation.
  • Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata.
  • Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrientsTransport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis.
  • Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
  • Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role.
  • Deficiency symptoms.
  • Mineral toxicity.
  • Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition.
  • Nitrogen metabolismNitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition.
  • Site of photosynthesis take place.
  • Pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea).
  • Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis.
  • Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis.
  • Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways.
  • Factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Respiration: Exchange gases.
  • Cellular respirationglycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic).
  • Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated.
  • Amphibolic pathways.
  • Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination.
  • Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate.
  • Conditions of growth.
  • Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation.
  • Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell.
  • Growth regulatorsauxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.
  • Seed dormancy
  • Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT 05 – Human Physiology
  • Digestion and absorption.
  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands.
  • Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones.
  • Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
  • Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
  • Egestion
  • Nutritional and digestive disorders PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
  • Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only).
  • Respiratory system in humans.
  • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humansExchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes.
  • Disorders related to respirationAsthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders
  • Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood.
  • Composition of lymph and its function.
  • Human circulatory systemStructure of human heart and blood vessels.
  • Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation.
  • Regulation of cardiac activity.
  • Disorders of circulatory systemHypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
  • Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism.
  • Human excretory systemstructure and fuction.
  • Urine formation, Osmoregulation.
  • Regulation of kidney functionRenin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus.
  • Role of other organs in excretion.
  • Disorders
  • Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis.
  • Dialysis and artificial kidney.
  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement ciliary, fiagellar, muscular.
  • Skeletal muscle contractile proteins and muscle contraction.
  • Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus).
  • Joints
  • Disorders of muscular and skeletal systemMyasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves.
  • Nervous system in humans central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system.
  • Generation and conduction of nerve impulse.
  • Reflex action.
  • Sense organs.
  • Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
  • Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones.
  • Human endocrine systemHypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads.
  • Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea).
  • Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g.Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmicgoiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
Biology CLASS 12 Syllabus
UNIT 01 – Reproduction
  • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species.
  • Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual.
  • Asexual reproduction.
  • Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes.
  • Pollination-types, agencies and examples.
  • Outbreeding devices.
  • Pollen-Pistil interaction.
  • Double fertilization.
  • Post fertilization eventsDevelopment of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit.
  • Special modesapomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony.
  • Significance of seed and fruit formation.
  • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems.
  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary.
  • Gametogenesisspermatogenesis & oogenesis.
  • Menstrual cycle.
  • Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation.
  • Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
  • Parturition (Elementary idea).
  • Lactation (Elementary idea).
  • Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
  • Birth controlNeed and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
  • Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT 02 ­– Genetics and Evolution
  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance.
  • Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.
  • Chromosome theory of inheritance.
  • Chromosomes and genes.
  • Sex determinationIn humans, birds, honey bee.
  • Linkage and crossing over.
  • Sex linked inheritanceHaemophilia, Colour blindness.
  • Mendelian disorders in humans
  • Chromosomal disorders in humans.
  • Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
  • Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material.
  • Structure of DNA and RNA.
  • DNA packaging; DNA replication.
  • Central dogma.
  • Transcription, genetic code, translation.
  • Gene expression and regulationLac Operon.
  • Genome and human genome project.
  • DNA finger printing.
  • Evolution: Origin of life.
  • Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence).
  • Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution.
  • Mechanism of evolutionVariation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection.
  • Gene flow and genetic drift.
  • HardyWeinberg’s principle.
  • Adaptive Radiation.
  • Human evolution.
UNIT 03 – Biology and Human Welfare
  • Health and Disease.
  • Pathogens
  • Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
  • Basic concepts of immunologyvaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Improvement in food production.
  • Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification.
  • Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
  • Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT 04 – Biotechnology and Its Applications
  • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
  • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
  • Genetically modified organismsBt crops.
  • Transgenic Animals.
  • Biosafety issuesBiopiracy and patents.
UNIT 05 – Ecology and Environment
  • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche.
  • Population and ecological adaptations.
  • Population interactionsmutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
  • Population attributesgrowth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
  • Ecosystem: Patterns, components.
  • Productivity and decomposition.
  • Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
  • Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession.
  • Ecological ServicesCarbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity.
  • Patterns of Biodiversity.
  • Importance of Biodiversity.
  • Loss of Biodiversity.
  • Biodiversity conservation.
  • Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
  • Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control.
  • Water pollution and its control.
  • Agrochemicals and their effects.
  • Solid waste management.
  • Radioactive waste management.
  • Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion.
  • Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Apart from this, the students can check the comprehensive list of all the topics covered in NEET 2020 physics and chemistry syllabus from the links given below.
  NEET 2020 Physics Syllabus
  NEET 2020 Chemistry Syllabus

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