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Origin and Evolution of life  Quiz-16

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NEET is the most famous and important medical entrance examination held in our country. This exam is an objective type, an offline test which includes 4 sections namely– Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology. The maximum marks that can be scored are 720 marks and have 180 questions. About half of the paper consists of questions from Biology, as the NEET exam essentially focuses on capacitating students to go for seats in medical courses. One of the most significant and crucial sections in the NEET exam is of Biology. It comprises of theories, descriptions, discoveries, diagrams, definitions, explanations of differences, and relations. The majority of the topics covered in the NEET syllabus are from the NCERT syllabus of Class 11 & 12 and other related sources become part of the rest of the syllabus. Clear Exam curates a list of articles selected by professionals who recommend the highly vital topics for NEET exams. The table below takes you directly to the respective topic where the in-depth article and the MCQs are available for an easy and productive learning experience. Prior to solving NEET question papers or practicing mock tests, you must ensure to study the basic concepts in NEET and practice a few sample questions related to this exam. Students will be covered for all their studies as the topics are available from basics to even the most advanced. .

Q1. Synthetic theory of evolution was developed by
  •  Several biological specialities
  •  Darwin
  •  Mendel
  •  Wallace
Solution
The synthetic theory of evolution is the result of the work of a number of scientist namely T Dobzhansky, RA Fisher, JBS Haldane, Sewall Wright, Ernst Mayer. Homology is also seen amongst the molecules. This is called molecular. For example, the proteins found in the blood of man and ape are similar. The phylogeny of an organism can be traced by using the base sequence in nucleic acids and the amino acid sequence of the proteins in related organisms

Q2. Connecting link between Annelida and Mollusca is
  •  Peripatus
  •  Lepidosiren
  •  Neopilina
  •  Protopterus
Solution
Connecting link is one, which exihibits characteristics of more than one groups. Neopilinais a connecting link between phylum-Annelida and Mollusca.

Q3. Prodigality of reproduction in Darwinism refers to
  •  Every organism produces numerous offspring
  •  Successful organism produce numerous offsprings
  •  Only a few individuals are able to reproduce
  •  Only a few individuals are able to survive
Solution
According to Darwinism, population of each species tends to increase in a geometric ratio from a single pair due to reproductive prodigality in organisms.

Q4. Which one of the following factor do not allows Hardy-Weinberg principle to operate?
  •  Inbreeding
  •  Mutation
  •  No selection
  •  No migration
Solution
Mutation brings the change in gene frequency hence, it fluctuates the allelic frequency of Hardy-Weinberg principle

Q5.

  •  I and II
  •  I and III
  •  I and IV
  •  II, III and IV
Solution
  Lack of migration, low selection pressure and very less mutation leads to the stabilization of a species in which the evolution occurs very slowly

Q6. The theory of random genetic drift was proposed by
  •  Sewall Wright
  •  Hardy-Weinberg
  • R A Fisher
  •  Mayer
Solution
Sewall Green Wright was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. The theory of random genetic drift was proposed by him. Genetic drift or allelic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling. The effect of genetic drift is larger in small populations, and smaller in large populations

Q7.A microsphere is a …A… collection of organic macromolecules with double layered outer boundary. The term microsphere was given by …B… Complete the given statement by choosing correct options for A and B with reference to NCERT textbook
  •  A-non-living, B-Sydney Fox
  •  A-living, B-Oparin
  •  A-non-living, B-Haldane
  •  A-living, B-Altman
Solution
A-Non-living, B-Sydney Fox

Q8.Which of the following statement is correct regarding the evolution of humans? I. The skull of adult chimpanzee is more like adult human skull than baby chimpanzee skull II. The skull of baby chimpanzee is more like adult human than adult chimpanzee skull III. Dryopithecus is oldest human like fossil IV. Dryopithecus found in Miocene rock of Africa and Europe The correct option is
  •  I and II
  •  I and III
  •  I and IV
  •  All excepts I
Solution
The skull of baby chimpanzee is more like adult human skull than the adult chimpanzee skull. Dryopithecus is the most oldest human like fossil. It is considered as the common ancestor of both human and ape. Dryopithecus was found in miocene rock of Africa and Europe

Q9.Scientist who also came to the similar conclusions around the same time of Charles Darwin was
  •  Alfred Wallace
  •  Hugo de Vries
  •  TH Morgan
  •  Oparin and Haldane
Solution
Alfred Wallace (1823-1913) was a naturalist from Britain. He wrote an essay tittle ‘On the Tendencies of varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the original type’. Thinking of both Darwin and Wallace in respect of organic evolution was similar

Q10. Abiogenesis means
  •  Origin of eukaryotes
  •  Origin of life from living organisms
  •  Origin of life from non-living organisms
  • Origin of prokaryotes
Solution
Important theories to explain the origin of life on earth are (i) Theory of Special Creation The greatest supporter of this theory was father Suarez. According to this theory life was created by supernatural powers. According to Bible the world was created in six days. The earth is 4000 yrs old. All the diversity was existed since creation (ii) Theory of Panspermia This theory is also called the cosmozoic theory. Early Greek thinkers thought units of life called spores were transferred to the different plants including earth from the other planets (iii) Theory of Spontaneous Generation This theory also is called a biogenesis or autogenesis. This theory states that the life originated from non-living by itself or spontaneous manner Dismissial of Spontaneous Generation Theory Louis Pasteur by carefully experimentation demonstrated that, life comes only from pre-existing life. He showed that in pre-sterilised flasks life did not come from killed yeast, while in another flask open to air, new living organisms arose from ‘killed yeast’. Spontaneous generation theory was dismissed once and for all. However, this did not answer how the first life came on the earth. (iv) Theory of Chemical Evolution This theory is also called modern theory of evolution or neuralistic theory of evolution Oparin and Haldane proposed that the first form of life could have come from pre-existing non-living organic molecules (e.g., RNA, protein, etc.) and that formation of life was preceded by chemical evolution, i.e., formation of diverse organic molecules from inorganic constituents

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Origin and Evolution of life Quiz-16
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