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Quiz-24 cell biology

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NEET is the most famous and important medical entrance examination held in our country. This exam is an objective type, an offline test which includes 4 sections namely– Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology. The maximum marks that can be scored are 720 marks and have 180 questions. About half of the paper consists of questions from Biology, as the NEET exam essentially focuses on capacitating students to go for seats in medical courses. One of the most significant and crucial sections in the NEET exam is of Biology. It comprises of theories, descriptions, discoveries, diagrams, definitions, explanations of differences, and relations. The majority of the topics covered in the NEET syllabus are from the NCERT syllabus of Class 11 & 12 and other related sources become part of the rest of the syllabus. Clear Exam curates a list of articles selected by professionals who recommend the highly vital topics for NEET exams. The table below takes you directly to the respective topic where the in-depth article and the MCQs are available for an easy and productive learning experience. Prior to solving NEET question papers or practicing mock tests, you must ensure to study the basic concepts in NEET and practice a few sample questions related to this exam. Students will be covered for all their studies as the topics are available from basics to even the most advanced. .

Q1.  In eukaryotic cell, plasmodesma is lined by plasma membrane. It encloses tubular extension of endoplasmic reticulum called
  •   Microtubule
  •   Microfilament
  •   Tubule
  •   Desmotubule
Solution
In eukaryotic cell, plasmodesma is lined by plasma membrane. It encloses tubular extension of endoplasmic reticulum called desmotubule

Q2. Quantasomes are present in
  •   Chloroplast
  •   Mitochondria
  •   Golgi body
  •   Lysosome
Solution
Quantasomes are the photosynthetic units present in the thylakoids of chloroplast. Each of the quantasomes contain about 250-300 chlorophyll molecules.

Q3.  Which one of the following nitrogenous bases is seen only in RNA?
  •   Adenine
  •   Thymine
  •   Uracil
  •   Cytosine
Solution
In DNA, the nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine(purines) and cytosine, thymine (pyrimidines) while RNA contains uracil in place of thymine (both pyrimidines) along with rest three similar to that of DNA.

Q4.  Nucleolus is
  •   Rounded structure found in cytoplasm near nucleus
  •   Rounded structure inside nucleus and having RNA
  •   Rod-shaped structure in cytoplasm near the nucleus
  •   None of the above
Solution
Nucleolus is a rounded structure present inside nucleus, having rRNA.

Q5. In prokaryotes, the process of replication is catalysed by the following enzymes. Identify which of the enzymes is best coordinate with role.
  •   Helicase – Joins the ends of DNA segments
  •   DNA polymerase-I – Synthesises DNA
  •  DNA polymerase-II - Erases primer and fills gaps
  •  Primase – Synthesises RNA primers
Solution
  (a) Helicase – Unwinds the double helix (b) DNA polymerase–I – Erases primer and fill gaps (c) DNA polymerase-II – Synthesises DNA (d) Primase – Synthesises RNA primers

Q6.  The thylakoid in chloroplast are arranged as
  •   Interconnected disc
  •   Interconnected sacs
  • Stacked discs
  •   None of these
Solution
The thylakoids in chloroplasts are arranged as stacked discs.

Q7.Organisation of a cell has not been achieved in
  •   Bacteriophage
  •   Bacteria
  •   Diatom
  •   Amoeba
Solution
Organisation of a cell has not been achieved in bacteriophage

Q8. Which form of RNA has a structure resembling clover leaf?
  •   rRNA
  •  hnRNA
  •   mRNA
  •   tRNA
Solution
The basic plan of the structure of RNA assumes the pattern of a clover leaf. The structures of different RNA for almost all amino acids are now available and all of these fit the clover leaf model.

Q9. Which is the initial step in RNA maturation process?
  •   Polyadenylation
  •  5’ capping
  •   Splicing
  •   Endonucleolytic cleavage
Solution
Messenger RNA (RNA) acts as a template for protein synthesis. It is produced by DNA with the help of process called transcription by RNA polymerase-II. The 5’ end of the RNA is modified by capping and the 3’ end is modified by polyadenylation.

Q10. Consider the following statements and choose the correct options I. The endomembrane system, include plasma membrane, ER Golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles. II. ER helps in the transport of substamces, synthesis of proteins, lipoproteins and glycogen. III. Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis. IV. Mitochondria help in oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ATP.
  •   II, III and IV correct
  •   I is correct
  •  II is correct
  • III is correct
Solution
(a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), the ER bearing ribosomes on their surface, is actively involved in protein synthesis, secretion and transport of substances. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the ER devoid of ribosome, is the major site for synthesis of lipid. In animal cells lipid-like steroidal hormones are synthesized in SER. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. Mitochondria are the site of aerobic respiration. They produce cellular energy in the form of ATP hence, they are called ‘power house’ of the cell. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs on the inner membrane of mitochondria.

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