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Biotechnolgy and microbes in human welfare Quiz-11

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NEET is the most famous and important medical entrance examination held in our country. This exam is an objective type, an offline test which includes 4 sections namely– Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology. The maximum marks that can be scored are 720 marks and have 180 questions. About half of the paper consists of questions from Biology, as the NEET exam essentially focuses on capacitating students to go for seats in medical courses. One of the most significant and crucial sections in the NEET exam is of Biology. It comprises of theories, descriptions, discoveries, diagrams, definitions, explanations of differences, and relations. The majority of the topics covered in the NEET syllabus are from the NCERT syllabus of Class 11 & 12 and other related sources become part of the rest of the syllabus. Clear Exam curates a list of articles selected by professionals who recommend the highly vital topics for NEET exams. The table below takes you directly to the respective topic where the in-depth article and the MCQs are available for an easy and productive learning experience. Prior to solving NEET question papers or practicing mock tests, you must ensure to study the basic concepts in NEET and practice a few sample questions related to this exam. Students will be covered for all their studies as the topics are available from basics to even the most advanced. .

Q1.  In the biological treatment of sewage the masses of bacteria held together by fungal filament to form mesh like structures called as
  •  Activated sludge
  •  Aerobic process
  •   Flocs
  •  Anaerobic sludge
Solution
Useful aerobic microbes grow rapidly and flocs. Flocs are masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to from mesh like structure. The growing microbes consume organic matter and thus reduce the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Q2. Which one of the following is a systematic insecticide?
  •  Malathion
  •  Parathion
  •   Endrin
  •   Furadan
Solution
A systemic insecticide, when applied to seeds, roots, stems or leaves of plants is absorbed and translocated to various parts of the plant in amounts lethal to insects, which feed on them, e.g., dimethoate, phosphamidon, phorate, aldicarb, parathion etc.

Q3. Which one is a neem product used as insect repellent?
  •   Azadirachtin
  •   Rotenone
  •   Parathione
  •   Endrin
Solution
Azadirachtin obtained from neem plant is used as insect repellent.

Q4. Which one of the following is not a biofertilizer?
  •  Bacillus thuringiensis
  •   Azotobacter
  •   Azolla
  •   Clostridium
Solution
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium used to produce genetically engineered Bt cotton.

Q5. Cytosporin-A an immunosuppressive drug is produced by the fungus
  •   Aspergillus niger
  •   Monascus purpureus
  •   Penicillium notatum
  •   Trichoderma polysporum
Solution
  Cyclosporine-A is an eleven membered cyclic oligopeptide obtained through fermentative activity of fungus Trichoderma polysporum. It inhibits activation of T-cells and therefore, prevents rejection reactions in organ transplantation

Q6.  A common biocontrol agent for the control of plant diseases
  •  Agrobacterium
  •  Glomus
  • Trichoderma
  •  Baculovirus
Solution
A biological control being developed for use in the treatment of plant disease is the fungus Trichoderma. Trichoderma species are free-living that are very common in root ecosystems.

Q7. Root cells of wheat has 2n = 42 chromosomes. Which one of the following is the basic chromosome number of wheat?
  •   42
  •   21
  •   7
  •   Both has F - 14
Solution
Wheat is hexaploid. Thus, basic chromosome number of wheat will be 7(42/6 = 7).

Q8.Which of the following food items are produced through fermentation by the microorganisms? I. Idli II. Dosa III. Toddy IV. Cheese Choose the correct option
  •   I, II and III
  •  T I, III and IV
  •   II, III and IV
  •   I, II, III and IV
Solution
Idli and dosa are fermented preparation of rice and black gram. The two are allowed to ferment for 3-12 hours with air borne Leuconostoc and Streptococcus species of bacteria Toddy is a traditional drink of some parts of south India, which is made by fermentation of sap of palms by bacterias Cheese is formed by partial degradation of milk by different microorganisms

Q9. Bacillus thuringiensis is used as
  •   Biofungicide
  •   Biopesticide
  •   Biocontroller
  •   Bioweapon
Solution
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological alternative to a pesticide, alternatively, the cry toxin may be extracted and used as a pesticide.

Q10.  Azolla is used as a biofertilizer because it
  •   Multiplies very fast to produce massive biomass
  •   Has association of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium
  •   Has association of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria
  • Has association of mycorrhiza
Solution
The leaves of Azolla (fern) have as many as 80,000 blue-green algae belonging to Anabaena azollae, which have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to Azolla. Azolla pinnata is an excellent biofertilizer for rice. Farmers may have reported 50% increase in yield of rice by using this biofertilizer.

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