Cell Biology Quiz-11

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NEET is the most famous and important medical entrance examination held in our country. This exam is an objective type, an offline test which includes 4 sections namely– Physics, Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology. The maximum marks that can be scored are 720 marks and have 180 questions. About half of the paper consists of questions from Biology, as the NEET exam essentially focuses on capacitating students to go for seats in medical courses. One of the most significant and crucial sections in the NEET exam is of Biology. It comprises of theories, descriptions, discoveries, diagrams, definitions, explanations of differences, and relations. The majority of the topics covered in the NEET syllabus are from the NCERT syllabus of Class 11 & 12 and other related sources become part of the rest of the syllabus. Clear Exam curates a list of articles selected by professionals who recommend the highly vital topics for NEET exams. The table below takes you directly to the respective topic where the in-depth article and the MCQs are available for an easy and productive learning experience. Prior to solving NEET question papers or practicing mock tests, you must ensure to study the basic concepts in NEET and practice a few sample questions related to this exam. Students will be covered for all their studies as the topics are available from basics to even the most advanced. .

Q1.   Arrange the following steps in a correct sequence as per Gram’s staining technique
I. Treatment with 0.5% iodine solution
II. Washing with water
III. Treatment with absolute alcohol/acetone
IV. Staining with weak alkaline solution of crystal violet
The correct sequence is
  •  II→I→IV→III
  •  IV→I→II→III
  •  III→II→I→IV
  •  I→IV→III→II
(b) Steps of Gram’s staining technique (i) Staining with weak alkaline solution of crystal violet (ii) Treatment with 0.5% iodine solution (iii) Washing with water (iv) Treatment with absolute alcohol/acetone

Q2.   Which of the following sugars is found in nucleic acid?
  •  Dextrose
  •  Glucose
  •  Levulose
  •  Deoxyribose
(d) Nucleic acids are of two types, i.e., DNA and RNA. RNA. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar (5 carbon),while RNA contains ribose sugar (5 carbon).

Q3.   Carrier ions like Na^+ facilitate the absorption of substances like
  •  Amino acids and glucose
  •  Glucose and fatty acids
  •  Fatty acids and glycerol
  •  Frustose and some amino acids
(a) Secondary active transport is of two main types- Co-transport (e.g., glucose and some amino acids along with inward pushing of excess Na^+) and counter transport (Ca^+ and H^+ import outwardly as excess Na^+ passes inwardly).
Q4.   The following diagram shows some of the missing structures in a plant cell (A-E). Identify the structures

  •  A-Plasmodesmata, B-Rough endoplasmic reticulum, C-Golgi apparatus, D-Mitochondrion, E-Ribosomes
  •  A-Desmosome, B-Rough endoplasmic reticulum, C-Golgi apparatus, D-Mitochondrion, E-Ribosomes
  •  A-Plasmodesmata, B-Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, C-Golgi apparatus, D-Mitochondrion, E-Ribosomes
  •  A-Tight junction, B-Rough endoplasmic reticulum, C-Golgi apparatus, D-Mitochondrion, E-Ribosomes
(a) A – Plasmodesmata B – Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum C – Golgi apparatus D – Mitochondrion E – Ribosomes

Q5.   Choose the incorrect match.
  •  Nucleus – RNA
  •  Lysosome – Protein synthesis
  •  Mitochondria – Respiration
  •  Cytoskeleton – Microtubules
  (b) Protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes, which are attached to surface of endoplasmic reticulum by ribophorin-I and ribophorin-II. About 50 hydrolytic enzymes are found in the lysosome. They include proteases, nucleases, glycosidases, lipases phospholipases, phosphatases and sulphatases. All lysosomal enzymes are acid hydrolases and optimally active at pH-5.0.

Q6.   When DNA replication starts
  •  The leading strand produces Okazaki fragments
  •  The hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides of two strands break
  •  The phosphodiester bonds between the adjacent nucleotides break
  •  The bonds between the nitrogen base and deoxyribose sugar break
(b) On starting of DNA replication, the two strands of DNA double helix unwind with the help of DNA unwinding protein (also called helicase). The unwinding occurs as this protein begins its binding with DNA strands, thus, breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nitrogenous bases.

Q7.   Which of the following statements are correct?
I. A multicellular organism is composed of mainly three types of cells
II. Undifferentiated cells are stem cells and are unspecialised cells, which usually possesses the power of division
III. Differentiated cells are post-mitotic cells and are specialised to perform specific functions
IV. Dedifferentiated cells are differentiated cells which revert to undifferentiated state to take over the function of division
  •  I, II and III
  •  Only I
  •  Except I
  •  I, II, III and IV
(d) A multicellular organism is composed of numerous cells. The cells are of three main types (i) Undifferentiated or Stem Cells They are unspecialised cells which usually possess the power of division, e.g., stem apical meristem, root apical meristem, vascular cambium, cork cambium, stratum germinativum of skin, germina epithelium, bone marrow, etc. Zygote is also an undifferentiated cell (ii) Differentiated or Post-mitotic Cells The cell are specialised to perform specific functions. Differentiation occurs in shape, size, structure and function through an orderly switching on and off of some particular genes of the cells by means of chemicals named as inducers and repressors. It leads to better organisation, division of labour and higher efficiency. Duplication of work is avoided (iii) Dedifferentiated cells They are differentiated cells which revert to undifferentiated state to take over the function of division. The process by which they lose their specialisation is called dedifferentiation. It involves reactivation of certain genes that prevent differentiation, allow limited growth and induce division. Cork cambium of plants is always produced through dedifferentiation. Dedifferentiation helps in healing of wounds, regeneration in animals, or vegetative propagation in plants. Cell culture experiments are based on this dedifferentiation of cells

Q8.   Cell theory was formulated by
  •   Schleiden and Schwann
  •  Rudolf Virchow
  •  Robert Brown
  •  Robert Hooke
(a) Cell theory was formulated by Schleiden and Schwann in 1839 in their paper Microscope investigations on the similarity of structure and growth in animals and plants

Q9.   Which of the following organelle is present in highest number in secretory cells?
  •  Dictyosome
  •  ER
  •  Lysosome
  •  Vacuole
(a) Dictyosome or Golgi complex is present in higher number in secretary cells. All glandular cells depend upon Golgi complex for concentrating and pouring their secretion to the outside.

Q10.   Identify the components labelled A,B,C,D and E in the diagram given below from the list I to VIII given along with it

Components I. Cristae of mitochondria II. Inner membrane of mitochondria III. Cytoplasm IV. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum V. Rough endoplasmic reticulum VI. Mitochondrial matrix VII. Ribosome VIII. Nucleus The correct components are A B C D E

  •  VI V IV VII I
  •  V I I II IV
(a) A-Nucleus, B-Rough endoplasmic reticulum, C-Ribosome, D-Cytoplasm, E-Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

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Cell Biology Quiz-11
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